Recent years have seen a huge spurt in the number of IPOs. IPO funding has also become very common these days. IPOs or Initial Public Offerings attracted a lot of people because of their attractive high-margin profits in a short duration. So, let’s understand in easy words what IPO means, what its types are, how an IPO take place and various other questions that you might be confused about.
What is an IPO?
Initial Public Offering or an IPO is the selling of shares by a company to the public. A company conducts an IPO for three reasons mainly.
If a company is earning well and wants to expand, it can list itself in the market and raise funds through an IPO.
2. Repay Debts
Sometimes, a company performs well but has heavy debts. In such cases, it might list itself to raise funds to repay its debts.
3. Exit the previous investors.
Sometimes Angel investors, venture capitalists and PE firms that initially might have invested in the company want to exit. In this case, the company raises funds and repays its investors.
An investor who is interested in buying shares from a company in its IPO can directly apply for an IPO through an application. When a company allots shares in the primary market, there is a higher chance of making profits. When the company is listed on the stock exchange or the secondary market, one can also purchase the shares from there.
Note – a company’s second offer is called FPO or Follow-on Public Offering.
A company needs to go through a very long procedure of writing a red herring prospectus, hiring lead managers and registrars and getting approval from the exchange board before the actual IPO process.
Types of IPOs
Commonly, there are two types of IPOs – Fixed Price Issues and Book Building Issues.
When a company brings an IPO in capital markets, it offers equity shares to the public. If the company decides the price of the shares during that time, it is called a fixed price issue. A book-building issue happens when a company brings an IPO and offers equity shares with a price range. When a company asks for a price range, it asks its bidders to bid in a price range they offer.
Thus, one can say that the major difference between these issues is that while fixed price issue has a specific value of their shares, the book-building issue gives a price band to their investors. Bid quantity and bid price also play a role in the book-building issue. The investors can bid in between this range, and the company finally gets to decide the cut-off price.
Know more- Timelines of book-building issue.
Types of Investors
The first and foremost thing in an IPO is its investors. Majorly, investors are divided into the categories of RII, NII, and QIB investors. In an IPO, each category is allotted a certain percentage of the total shares.
Category of Investors
Retail investors are individuals, NRIs, or HUFs who apply for shares through the book-building procedure. Their maximum application is Rs. 2 lakh.
To raise the required funds as an IPO approach, underwriters sell substantial volumes of stocks at a profit to investors.
Non-institutional investors or non-SEBI investors can apply for shares without registering with SEBI. High-net-worth individuals (HNIs) have a single investment totalling more than Rs. 2 lakh.
The eligibility criteria for all these categories are different. Even the application form for all these categories is to be filled out differently. Today, most investors opt for the online method. However, offline or physical method of application is also available. A person can only apply in one category at a time. No separate bids are also allowed in the same category of investment by a single individual.
For more details, check- the pros and cons of NII investment.
Things You Should Keep in Mind While Applying For an IPO
You must have a Demat account to apply for an IPO. Now, PAN Card has also become mandatory for the process. Earlier, the application was filled offline through cheques and submitted, but the entire process has become online. You can only apply once for any IPO. Joint Demat account holders have a different set of rules. If you wish to apply for an IPO more than once,
Visit: Nomination in Demat Account
Make sure you fill out the application form correctly. If you want to make changes to your application or withdraw, you can do that until the IPO is open. Single shares are never available in an IPO. A market lot size is the smallest number of equities that can be exchanged on a stock exchange. The minimum order quantity in the IPO is the least number of shares an investor acquires or sells in return for participating in the IPO. The market lot size is the smallest number of shares that can be bought in an IPO. Therefore. You need to keep minimum order quantity and market lot size in mind at the time of applying for an IPO.
Process of IPO
An IPO begins with the hiring of syndicate members. After that, the valuation of the company takes place. For example, investment bankers determine the company’s value as Rs. 100 Cr. The company wants to raise an amount of Rs. 10 Cr through the IPO. This means it is offering the public 10% of its shares. Thus, the issue size becomes Rs. 10 Cr. And the company decides the issue price as Rs. 1000. Therefore, the number of shares becomes 10000.
There are three basic stages in an IPO: Pre-IPO, IPO and Post-IPO. As the names suggest, Pre-IPO is the preparation of a prospectus, hiring of investment banks, and evaluating the company. IPO is the stage when the IPO actually takes place. Bidding is open to the public for three to seven days. Post-IPO is the final stage when the shares are allotted to the bidders finally.
Know about the complete process and steps in an IPO.
IPO Applications in Detail
You need basic things like a Demat account, PAN card etc., to apply for an IPO. One individual can only apply for one application as each application has unique fields.
To know more, check the ASBA mode of application.
There are various modes of filling out an IPO application. Online net banking IPO applications also have different rules and regulations. You can also apply for an IPO through your sweep-in/sweep-out bank account. To apply more than once, you can use your friend’s and family’s accounts to increase the probability of getting the allotment.
Risk Factors Involved in an IPO
Applying for an IPO doesn’t guarantee you shares. It completely depends on the basis of allotment and oversubscription of the IPO if you would get the shares or not. When you apply for an IPO, an ASBA amount is blocked till the date of allotment. Thus, it also gives you a financial backlog even if you are not allotted the shares. You although receive a refund of this amount. Thus, there are no safety issues while applying for an IPO.
To minimise the risks, always research before investing. Some tips for choosing the right IPO investments are good research, strong brokers, reading the prospectus etc. For a detailed blog, visit our blog.
Who can apply for an IPO?
Anybody who is above 18 and possesses a Demat account is eligible to apply for an IPO. A minor can also apply for an IPO under certain circumstances. Your investment amount determines your category as an investor; for example, if you invest less than Rs. 2 lakhs, you fall under retail investors. You can also apply for IPOs under “private family trusts” if you have one. You can also invest as a private limited company as well.
Listing in the Stock Exchange
After the IPO process, the stocks get listed in the market. The bidding/offer days are open for 3-5 days generally. The shares are listed in the market within three days after the allotment of shares. So, the company gets the funds within three days, and the ones who do not get shares get their refund within these days. You can trade your shares after the listing of the shares in the stock market. The ones who want to take an early exit can also do that by participating in the pre-listing. Pre-Listing is special trading that happens exactly before the listing to determine the prices of the IPO shares in the stock market.
Earlier only ASBA or Application Supported by Blocked Amount were allowed, but the process has become much easier after the introduction of the UPI system by the exchange board. However, ASBA remains the most important form.
There are various misconceptions regarding ASBA.
What is the detailed process of ASBA? You can check these for detailed information.
- How does the payment take place through ASBA?
- Is a third-party ASBA allowed in IPO application?
- What are the basic requirements for ASBA applications,
- How can someone apply through ASBA without an SCSB-approved bank account?
- how can one receive an acknowledgement receipt for ASBA? Can one apply through ASBA without a trading account?
- How many IPO applications can be made from one bank account using ASBA?
What is IPO Grey Market?
The term grey brings in a lot of negative connotations with it. Regarding IPO, the white market refers to the day-to-day legal market where SEBI rules are applicable and trades are made under its regulations. The black market refers to unlawful transactions or trades in the stock market. The grey market stands in between both these terms. The grey market is where shares are traded but without SEBI regulations and legal authority. Tax regulations on the grey market are also different. It is a place where you can sell your allotted shares even before the allotment. Grey market prices keep fluctuating every day. There are various ways to learn about the rates of grey market shares. There is always a requirement for mediators and dealers in the grey market.
Three terms that always occur in the grey market are grey market premium, Kostak rate and Subject to Sauda (SS). People often get confused about the last two.
Grey market trading, also known as pre-IPO trading, is a type of unofficial market where shares of a company that is about to go public are traded among investors before the official listing. The prices quoted in this market are not official and may fluctuate widely.
The term “Kostak rate” is used for the rate at which an investor can sell the right to apply for shares in an IPO before the allotment is done. Subject to Sauda (SS) is an agreement in which shares are sold in advance, with the understanding that they will only be transferred if the shares are allotted to the seller. The “grey market premium” refers to the difference in price between the unofficial price quoted in the grey market and the official price of the shares once they are listed on the exchange.
It’s important to note that grey market trading is not legal and is not endorsed by stock exchanges or regulators. It’s also a risky move as the prices quoted in the grey market are not official and may fluctuate widely.
Initial Public Offerings (IPOs) are a common method for companies to raise funds by issuing shares to the public. The process of an IPO involves several steps, including drafting a prospectus, hiring lead managers, and obtaining approval from the stock exchange. There are two main types of IPOs, and investors in IPOs can be grouped into three categories: Retail Individual Investors (RII), Qualified Institutional Investors (QIB), and Non-Institutional Investors (NII), each with their own eligibility criteria. Understanding the process and types of investors is crucial for any individual considering participating in an IPO.