Demystifying the Types of Investors in IPO: A Comprehensive Guide for Indian Investors

IPO investments are quite famous among the market participants. In today’s blog, we will explore the investor category in IPO, organising them into four distinct types: Qualified Institutional Investors (QIIs), Anchor Investors, Retail Investors, and High Net-Worth Individuals (HNIs)/Non-Institutional Investors (NIIs). Through a conversational tone, we’ll explore the advantages and intricacies associated with each investor type, catering specifically to the Indian audience.

Types of Investors in the IPO Market
Types of Investors in the IPO Market

Types of Investors in IPO: Exploring the Investor Category

Qualified Institutional Investors (QIIs)

QIIs, comprising entities like commercial banks, public financial institutions, mutual fund houses, and foreign portfolio investors, play a pivotal role in the IPO landscape. Underwriters often offer substantial IPO shares to QIIs at attractive prices before the public offering. This strategic allocation can influence stock prices and capital accumulation. SEBI’s regulation of limiting QII shares to 50% ensures a balanced distribution.

Advantages of QIIs

  1. Expedited Process: QII involvement streamlines the IPO process, minimizing time consumption compared to public issuance.
  2. Cost-Effectiveness: Escaping the need for extensive approval processes, QIIs avoid large-scale legal and financial teams.
  3. Opportunity for Stakes: QIIs enjoy substantial share purchase opportunities and can trade post the 90-day lock-in period.

Anchor Investors

Anchor Investors, akin to QIIs, invest a minimum of 10 crores and purchase shares at fixed prices. Their participation instils investor confidence and signals market sentiment before the public subscription. Up to 50% of shares allocated to QIIs can be sold to Anchor Investors.

Advantages of Anchor Investors

  1. Insights Advantage: Anchor investors possess exclusive company insights, guiding them toward profitable investments.
  2. Early Participation: Their early entry provides a market signal, steering market perception before the IPO opens.
  3. Reputation and Quality: Institutions invest in Anchor Investors to bolster credibility by associating with quality issues.

Retail Investors in IPO

Retail investors, an essential component of IPOs, include individuals whose application value remains below ₹2 lakhs. Their allocation share is a minimum of 35%, and SEBI mandates allotting at least one share lot per investor in cases of oversubscription.

Advantages of Retail Investors

  1. Seizing Future Potential: IPOs enable stock purchase at attractive prices, offering long-term appreciation prospects.
  2. Dividends and Bonuses: Earnings from company performance lead to dividends or bonuses, ensuring sustained profitability.

High Net-Worth Individuals in IPO (HNIs) / Non-Institutional Investors (NIIs)

HNIs and NIIs invest more than ₹2 lakhs, comprising entities like resident Indian individuals, eligible NRIs, HUFs, companies, societies, and trusts. While similar to QIIs, NIIs do not require SEBI registration. Up to 15% of the IPO offer is reserved for NIIs.

Advantages of Non-Institutional Investors

  1. Higher Investment Capability: NIIs can invest over ₹2 lakhs, affording them larger stakes in IPOs.
  2. Flexibility: NIIs can withdraw IPO applications pre-allotment, providing investment flexibility.


The captivating world of IPOs revolves around four key investor types: QIIs, Anchor Investors, Retail Investors, and HNIs/NIIs. Their distinct roles and reserved share percentages contribute to the IPO ecosystem’s dynamics. To maximise your participation, a comprehensive understanding of each category is crucial. Remember, not every IPO is a golden opportunity, so diligent research is paramount before taking the plunge into this financial realm.

FAQs|Types Of Investors in IPO

How are QIIs essential for IPOs?

Qualified Institutional Investors (QIIs) like banks, mutual funds, and foreign investors offer substantial pre-IPO share purchases, influencing prices and capital accumulation.

What advantage do Anchor Investors bring?

Anchor Investors, akin to QIIs, invest a minimum of 10 crores before the public subscription, instilling investor confidence and signalling market sentiment.

What’s unique about Retail Investors in IPOs?

Retail investors seize the opportunity for future stock appreciation at IPO prices and enjoy dividends or bonuses based on company performance.

What sets HNIs/NIIs apart from other investor categories?

High Net-Worth Individuals (HNIs) and Non-Institutional Investors (NIIs) invest over ₹2 lakhs, benefiting from flexibility and higher investment capability.

How many types of investors are there in an IPO?

IPOs see participation from QIIs, Anchor Investors, Retail Investors, and HNIs/NIIs, contributing to the diverse investor landscape.

What are the 3 types of investors?

IPOs feature QIIs, Retail Investors, and HNIs/NIIs as the three primary investor categories, each with distinct roles and advantages.

How are investors selected for IPO?

IPOs allocate shares to Qualified Institutional Investors (QIIs), Anchor Investors, Retail Investors, and HNIs/NIIs based on their respective roles and investment capabilities.

Who is a retail investor in IPO?

In IPOs, a retail investor refers to individuals who invest up to ₹2 lakhs, availing the opportunity to become shareholders and potentially benefit from stock appreciation.

What are the three categories of investors in a public issue?

Public issues involve QIIs, Retail Investors, and HNIs/NIIs as the three prominent categories of investors, each contributing to the offering’s success.


Disclaimer: Investments in the securities market are subject to market risks; read all the related documents carefully before investing.