Currency Futures in India: Meaning and Working

Delving into the captivating landscape of the Indian stock market, currency futures stand as a significant instrument for traders and investors. This comprehensive guide is tailored for an Indian audience, unraveling the intricacies of currency futures while highlighting their differences from options. With real-life examples and insightful takeaways, embark on this journey to grasp the fundamentals of currency futures and their unique characteristics.

What are Currency Futures?

Currency futures are standardised contracts that obligate traders to buy or sell a specified amount of a foreign currency at a predetermined exchange rate on a specified future date. They enable participants to hedge against currency risk and speculate on currency movements.

Understanding Currency Futures and Options

Currency futures and options are essential tools in the world of foreign exchange trading. Here’s a breakdown of what they are and how they differ:

Currency Futures 

Currency futures are essentially contracts that allow investors to buy or sell a specific amount of a currency at a fixed exchange rate on a predetermined date in the future. These contracts are traded on centralized exchanges like the BSE, NSE, and MCX-SX in India.

Investors use currency futures for various purposes, including:

  • Hedging Against Currency Risk: Businesses and investors can use currency futures to protect themselves from adverse currency movements, ensuring stable prices for their international transactions.
  • Speculating on Currency Movements: Traders often engage in currency futures to speculate on the direction of currency values, aiming to profit from price fluctuations.
  • Arbitrage Opportunities: Currency futures can be employed to capitalize on price differences between the futures market and the spot market.

Currency Options

Currency options, on the other hand, provide the buyer with the right (but not the obligation) to buy or sell a specific currency at a predetermined exchange rate on or before a specified date. These contracts are typically traded over-the-counter (OTC) or on exchanges like the CME in the US.

Currency options serve various purposes, including:

  • Hedging Currency Risk: Businesses can use options to protect themselves from adverse currency movements.
  • Speculative Trading: Traders can speculate on currency movements by buying or selling options.
  • Customized Strategies: Currency options allow investors to create tailored strategies to meet their specific financial goals.

Key Differences: Currency Futures and Options

The primary distinction between currency futures and options lies in the obligations they impose:

  • In futures contracts, both parties are obligated to fulfill the contract’s terms. Futures traders must buy or sell the currency when the contract expires.
  • In options contracts, the buyer has the right but not the obligation to execute the trade. Option sellers may have to buy or sell if the trade goes against them.

Moreover, options buyers do not need to put up margin, and their potential loss is limited to the premium they paid for the option, while their upside potential is unlimited. In contrast, futures traders must put up margin, and both their potential loss and gain are unlimited.

Examples in India: In India, some common examples of currency futures and options are:

  • USD/INR Futures: These futures contracts are based on the exchange rate between the US dollar and the Indian rupee. The contract size is 1000 units of foreign currency, with monthly expiration dates.
  • EUR/INR Options: These options contracts are based on the euro to Indian rupee exchange rate. They also have a contract size of 1000 units and monthly expiry dates.

Some Important Considerations

While currency futures and options offer various benefits, including portfolio diversification and risk management, they come with risks such as market volatility, liquidity concerns, and counterparty risk. Therefore, investors should thoroughly understand these derivatives’ features, advantages, and drawbacks before incorporating them into their trading strategies.


Currency futures, an integral component of the Indian stock market, present lucrative opportunities for traders, investors, and businesses alike. Armed with a thorough understanding of how currency futures operate, their significance, and their distinctions from options, Indian investors can navigate this realm with confidence. As you embark on your journey with currency futures, remember that continuous learning, prudent risk management, and careful analysis are key to achieving success in this dynamic market.

FAQs on Currency Futures

What do you mean by currency futures?

Currency futures are contracts allowing investors to buy or sell a specific amount of currency at a set price and future date. They are used for hedging, speculation, or arbitrage.

Do currencies have futures?

Yes, currencies have futures contracts traded on exchanges like BSE, NSE, and MCX-SX. These contracts include pairs such as USD/INR, EUR/INR, GBP/INR, JPY/INR.

Is currency futures allowed in India?

Yes, currency futures were introduced in India in 2008 by NSE and extended to other exchanges. They are regulated by RBI and SEBI.

What are the types of currency futures in India?

India has four main currency futures pairs: USD/INR, EUR/INR, GBP/INR, and JPY/INR. These represent major global currencies and have monthly expirations.


Disclaimer: Investments in the securities market are subject to market risks; read all the related documents carefully before investing.